The study provides an overview and comparative analysis of nine national approaches to strengthening knowledge security and the forces that drive them. The national approaches are those of Australia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom and the United States. They all have developed different approaches, depending on the national political context, geographical location, experiences with foreign interference and the level of internationalization of the higher education and research sector. The approaches vary in comprehensiveness, practicality, and the roles played by government actors and representatives of the higher education and research sector.
The study finds that coherence and practicality of measures, good coordination between the stakeholders involved, and government support for bottom-up activities by universities, are among the major factors that impact the effectiveness of an approach. The report concludes with best practices that the case studies offer; they include the promotion of international collaboration and coordination with regard to developing standards for research security, an approach that avoids securitization of international research collaboration, and the establishment of organizations that facilitate direct communication and coordination between the government and the higher education sector.